While an economist might examine the cost and benefits of various policies related to global warming, an environmental ethicist could examine the ethical values and principles at stake.Many different disciplines, , and professions have standards for behavior that suit their particular aims and goals.Most people learn ethical norms at home, at school, in church, or in other social settings.
Ethical norms also serve the aims or goals of research and apply to or other scholarly or creative activities.
There is even a specialized discipline, research ethics, which studies these norms.
Fourth, ethical norms in research also help to build public support for research.
People are more likely to fund a research project if they can trust the quality and integrity of research.
Indeed, in the last century, many social reformers have urged citizens to disobey laws they regarded as immoral or unjust laws.
Peaceful civil disobedience is an ethical way of protesting laws or expressing political viewpoints.Many government agencies, such as the Strive for honesty in all scientific communications.Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.One may also define ethics as a method, procedure, or perspective for deciding how to act and for analyzing complex problems and issues.For instance, in considering a complex issue like , one may take an economic, ecological, political, or ethical perspective on the problem.Third, many of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to the public.For instance, federal policies on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, the are necessary in order to make sure that researchers who are funded by public money can be held accountable to the public.One plausible explanation of these disagreements is that all people recognize some common ethical norms but interpret, apply, and balance them in different ways in light of their own values and life experiences.For example, two people could agree that murder is wrong but disagree about the morality of abortion because they have different understandings of what it means to be a human being.Ethical norms are so ubiquitous that one might be tempted to regard them as simple commonsense.On the other hand, if morality were nothing more than commonsense, then why are there so many ethical disputes and issues in our society?