Chapter 3 Of Research Paper

Chapter 3 Of Research Paper-86
Again, nearly all proposals follow the same format.In fact, the proposal is identical to the first three chapters of the final paper except that it's writtten in future tense.While the population can usually be defined by a single statement, the sampling procedure needs to be described in extensive detail.

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In the proposal, you might say something like "the researchers will secure the sample from ...", while in the final paper, it would be changed to "the researchers secured the sample from ...".

Once again, with the exception of tense, the proposal becomes the first three chapters of the final research paper.

A paper that looks like a draft, will interpreted as such, and you can expect extensive and liberal modifications.

Take the time to put your paper in perfect APA format before showing it to anyone else.

The title page has no page number and it is not counted in any page numbering.

Left margin: 1" Right margin: 1" Top margin: 1" Bottom margin: 1" Pages are numbered at the top right. Generally, the same font must be used throughout the manuscript, except 1) tables and graphs may use a different font, and 2) chapter titles and section headings may use a different font. TITLE PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I - Introduction Introductory paragraphs Statement of the problem Purpose Significance of the study Research questions and/or hypotheses CHAPTER II - Background Literature review Definition of terms CHAPTER III - Methodology Restate purpose and research questions or null hypotheses Population and sampling Instrumentation (include copy in appendix) Procedure and time frame Analysis plan (state critical alpha level and type of statistical tests) Validity and reliability Assumptions Scope and limitations CHAPTER IV - Results CHAPTER V - Conclusions and recommendations Summary (of what you did and found) Discussion (explanation of findings - why do you think you found what you did?The statement of the problem is the focal point of your research. It points out how your study relates to the larger issues and uses a persuasive rationale to justify the reason for your study. The significance of the study answers the questions: Why is your study important? Include it if your paper uses special terms that are unique to your field of inquiry or that might not be understood by the general reader.It is just one sentence (with several paragraphs of elaboration). ...something that needs close attention ...existing methods that no longer seem to be working. "Operational definitions" (definitions that you have formulated for the study) should also be included.Try to give dramatic and concrete illustrations of the problem. Keep the wording of your research questions consistent throughout the document.After writing this section, make sure you can easily identify the single sentence that is the problem statement. The basic research paradigm is: 1) Define the population 2) Draw a representative sample from the population 3) Do the research on the sample 4) Infer your results from the sample back to the population As you can see, it all begins with a precise definition of the population.Example of a problem statement: "The frequency of job layoffs is creating fear, anxiety, and a loss of productivity in middle management workers." While the problem statement itself is just one sentence, it is always accompanied by several paragraphs that elaborate on the problem. An example of an operational definition is: "For the purpose of this research, improvement is operationally defined as posttest score minus pretest score".Present persuasive arguments why the problem is important enough to study. The methodology section describes your basic research plan.Readers of the paper will be looking for these chapters and sections so you should not deviate from the standard format unless you are specifically requested to do so by the research sponsor.Most research studies begin with a written proposal.The style guide contains hundreds of rules for grammar, layout, and syntax. Instead of saying "I will ..." or "We will ...", say something like "The researcher will ..." or "The research team will ...".A suggestion: Never present a draft (rough) copy of your proposal, thesis, dissertation, or research paper..if asked.


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