Ap Bio Molecular Genetics Essay

Ap Bio Molecular Genetics Essay-18
The ribosome is a multi-subunit structure containing r RNA and proteins.

These subunits come together before translation of m RNA into a protein to provide a location for translation to be carried out and a polypeptide to be produced.

The choice of amino acid type to be added is determined by the genetic code on the m RNA molecule.

Each of those triplets codes for a specific amino acid.

The ribosome molecules translate this code to a specific sequence of amino acids.

Aminoacyl-t RNA synthetases that mispair t RNAs with the wrong amino acids can produce mischarged aminoacyl-t RNAs, which can result in inappropriate amino acids at the respective position in protein.

This "mistranslation" of the genetic code naturally occurs at low levels in most organisms, but certain cellular environments cause an increase in permissive m RNA decoding, sometimes to the benefit of the cell. They are the aminoacyl site (abbreviated A), the peptidyl site (abbreviated P) and the exit site (abbreviated E).

The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary t RNA anticodon sequences to m RNA codons.

The t RNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the m RNA passes through and is read by the ribosome.

Each amino acid added is matched to a three nucleotide subsequence of the m RNA.

For each such triplet possible, the corresponding amino acid is accepted.


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